"same as what is justice in the state (politics). Much modern theory has separated ethics from politics. 'Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar's; render unto God that which is God's". But there also are attempts to reunify ethics and politics, in the works of John Locke, Thomas Jefferson* and John Dewey, though in senses entirely different from that of Socrates and Plato."
"When a skilled musician tunes a string on an instrument, does he turn the peg further than what any skilled musician would deem proper? Obviously not. Is a physician better if he prescribes double dosages? Obviously not. In practicing a skill, we do not aim to go beyond, but only to hit the right point. Virtue is a kind of skill, and this requires a knowledge of what is the right measure. The unjust man, therefore, is not exercising much of a skill, is he? Nor is the tyrant doing much of a job at ruling. One cannot claim to play a higher F-sharp than anyone else--since we all know that F-sharp is F-sharp, and there cannot be higher or lower F-sharp's. It is the just man who knows the proper note; it is the unjust man who exceeds it and goes out of tune in his life. It is injustice, then, that is the fool's game. It destroys individuals, as it destroys states.
This, then--the psychological basis of justice (the soul in proper tune), as well as the political basis of justice (the state in proper tune)--is the theme for the remainder of the Republic."
Mr. Rauch spelt it "physchological" but i assume he means psychological, though he may mean physiological.
The copyrights are by Walter J. Black, Inc.--for "Five Great Dialogues", 1969 (renewed); and by Thor Publications, Inc.--for "The Republic and Dialogues of Plato", 1964.
I would refer you to these few things at this time, sirs, likely
relevant in a reasonable evaluation of these concerns. First,
let me remind you of this from the Prime Minister of Canada's
November 2, 1981 opening address at the Federal-Provincial
Conference of First Ministers on the Constitution: the one
which secured the repatriation and your treasured, entrenched Charter
of Rights. The Prime Minister said:
"On the third question, and the third question is should we have a
*-I WOULD DRAW YOUR ATTENTION TO
THE QUOTE OF THOMAS JEFFERSON ON THE COVER PAGE OF THIS AWARD-WINNING WEBSITE
, AS WELL AS THIS ONE QUOTED DURING THE COURSE OF THIS "INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATIC WORK...ON A DIRECT BASIS" FOR THE WORLD'S CHILDREN:
"...AND SAY,* FINALLY, WHETHER PEACE IS BEST PRESERVED BY GIVING ENERGY TO THE GOVERNMENT, OR INFORMATION TO THE PEOPLE. THIS LAST IS THE MOST CERTAIN, AND THE MOST LEGITIMATE ENGINE OF GOVERNMENT. EDUCATE AND INFORM THE WHOLE MASS OF THE PEOPLE. ENABLE THEM TO SEE THAT IT IS THEIR INTEREST TO PRESERVE PEACE AND ORDER, AND THEY WILL PRESERVE THEM. AND IT REQUIRES NO VERY HIGH DEGREE OF EDUCATION TO CONVINCE THEM OF THIS. THEY ARE THE ONLY SURE RELIANCE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF OUR LIBERTY. AFTER ALL, IT IS MY PRINCIPLE THAT THE WILL OF THE MAJORITY SHOULD PREVAIL. IF THEY APPROVE THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION IN ALL ITS PARTS, I SHALL CONCUR IN IT CHEERFULLY IN HOPES THEY WILL AMEND IT, WHENEVER THEY SHALL FIND IT WORKS WRONG. THIS RELIANCE CANNOT DECEIVE US, AS LONG AS WE REMAIN VIRTUOUS; AND I THINK WE SHALL BE SO, AS LONG AS AGRICULTURE IS OUR PRINCIPAL OBJECT, WHICH WILL BE THE CASE, WHILE THERE REMAINS VACANT LANDS IN ANY PART OF AMERICA. WHEN WE GET PILED UPON ONE ANOTHER IN LARGE CITIES, AS IN EUROPE, WE SHALL BECOME CORRUPT AS IN EUROPE, AND GO TO EATING ONE ANOTHER AS THEY DO THERE.
WE THINK, IN AMERICA, THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO INTRODUCE THE PEOPLE INTO EVERY DEPARTMENT OF GOVERNMENT, AS FAR AS THEY ARE CAPABLE OF EXERCISING IT; AND THAT THIS IS THE ONLY WAY TO INSURE A LONG-CONTINUED AND HONEST ADMINISTRATION OF ITS POWERS. WERE I CALLED UPON TO DECIDE, WHETHER THE PEOPLE HAD BEST BE OMITTED IN THE LEGISLATIVE OR JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT, I WOULD SAY IT IS BETTER TO LEAVE THEM OUT OF THE LEGISLATURE. THE EXECUTION OF THE LAWS IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE MAKING THEM."
THERE IS A FULLER AND POSSIBLY STILL TOPICAL EXPOSITION (AS WE MOVE TOWARDS THE NEW MILLENNIUM AND WHAT IT ALREADY HAS BEEN INDICATED IT WILL INCLUDE) ON THIS PARTICULAR WISDOM TO BE FOUND IF YOU TAKE A BRIEF SIDESTEP HERE.